History of the DDR Programme

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, was a set of agreements culminating in January 2005 that were signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.

The Naivasha Agreement was meant to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, develop democratic governance countrywide and share oil revenues.It further set a timetable by which Southern Sudan would have a referendum on its independence.

This agreement was to separate  the opposing forces in order to bring peace.The key requirement for restoring and strengthening security is through Disarmament, Demobilisation and in particular Reintegration into the civilian society.


RIGHT: Sudan’s First Vice President Ali Osman Mohamed Taha (L) and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement leader John Garang show the signed peace accord at a ceremony in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, January 9, 2005.

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement provided for the formation of three national bodies to lead and co-ordinate the DDR process in the country: the National DDR Co-ordination Council (NDDRCC), the Southern Sudan DDR Commission (SSDDRC) and the Northern Sudan DDR Commission (NSDDRC). The SSDDRC and NSDDRC are charged with establishing a presence in each of the States, and with contributing to the DDR Offices in Abyei and the Transitional areas.

In Southern Sudan, the SSDDRC answers to the Vice President of the Government of Southern Sudan for day-to-day supervision and management. The National DDR Coordinating Council is responsible for policy formulation, oversight, review, coordination and evaluation.

DDR program of Ex-combatants/Women associated with armed forces who might otherwise undermine public security and constrain the progress towards development and sustainable peace.

The post conflict Reintegration of ex-combatants has proven essential to effective demobilisation of Ex-combatants and sustainable restoration of peace and security in Sudan.

LEFT: An ex-combatant in celebration dance after signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.

In Sudan, the failure to reintegrate the Anyanya Ex-combatants contributed to conditions leading to the outbreak of the Second Civil war.The failure of the Anyanya process has also resulted in suspicions about the current Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration process.